An hourglass is two semicircular vessels connected by a thin web with an opening inside. The device is located vertically, secured in a sturdy case. In appearance resemble.
Firing Hours In The Majority Represent A Candle, Marked In Length Into Equal Segments.
The principle of sand and five hours.
The principle of the operation is based on a visible uniform change in the amount of the working substance at regular intervals.
In the hourglass, time is measured based on the change in the amount of sand. In fire devices, wicks made of combustible materials (ropes, threads) are used.
- For the accuracy of determining the hourglass time intervals, two conditions were necessary:
- The microscopic diameter of the hole of the connecting channel of two bowls.
- The same dimensions of the bulk material.
The calibration of the grains of sand was carried out in different ways. They were obtained from marble powder, boiled in wine, dried, sieved and measured a certain amount. The use of lead powder is known. At that time, it was considered the most homogeneous in the composition of sand grains, not violating the smoothness of the inner walls of blood vessels.
Who And When Invented The Hourglass?
The first hourglass appeared more than 1000 years ago. Historically it is not established who exactly created them. It is known that the ancient Greek scientist Archimedes proposed to measure time intervals, pouring sand evenly from one opaque glass vessel to another.
After discovering the secret of getting a clear glass, the idea of counting time with the help of bulk materials gave impetus to the development and improvement of the available watch devices.
It was possible to measure small periods of time from 15 to 30 minutes.
You need the constant presence of a person who is counting time intervals and turning over the clock when the upper flask is empty.
The accuracy of the measurement of time was influenced by the shape of the flask, the presence of flaws inside the glass bowl, the uniformity of calibrated grains of sand.
The daily accuracy of the hourglass was 15 – 20 minutes.
The right of the pioneers of fire clocks belongs to the Ancient East during the reign of the first Chinese emperor 3,000 years ago, such primitive devices already existed.
Masters of China have improved the process of determining the time, developing ingenious designs in which the combustion of wicks was accompanied by a uniform hit of falling balls on a metal stand. Wax candles contained incense, exuding pleasant smells. The rod itself could consist of segments with the addition of various aromatic substances. As the candles burned, tangible aromas changed. This further regulated the clarity of a person’s life rhythm during the day.
Candlestick cylinder could reach a meter height. The length is marked with metal pins. The wax gradually burned, the plates fell on a metal stand, and the sound indicated the elapsed time.
Made of a mixture of combustible materials (sawdust with tar).
The upward metal spiral was tightly wrapped with this mixture; the balls were evenly attached on thin threads. The fire alternately burned the fixing of elements, and the ringing from the fall measured time.
The design is based on the dependence of the oil level in the vessel as the wick burns. The hour scale on the oil flask “counted out” equal periods of time.
The Advantage Of Firing Hours Is:
Additional room lighting.
Tracking the course of time for the combustible segments of the wick or the sound of falling metal balls at a visible and audible distance.
The inability to reuse some elements of the clock.
Long-term manufacturing of “parts,” careful marking of the scale of combustible time.